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Entrepreneurial Leader
The art of progress is to preserve order amid change and to preserve change amid order. -Alfred North Whitehead



My 3S Philosophy examines commonly-held views and beliefs.  By a close look at your own philosophy and by comparing it with others’ views you can better understand your own approach.  You can also consider whether you might want to modify or revise some of your personal views.

You will get measures of your own preferences with regard to four important concepts. The scores displayed on the personal feedback you will receive give you a clear visual comparison of your orientation to each of these concepts. By completing the survey you will learn more about yourself and how you might further expand your skills and make better use of opportunities.

Transactional leadershipTransactional leadership is called that because it involves a transaction between leader and follower. The follower carries out a defined task and, if the task is successfully completed, the leader gives the follower a reward that they have agreed on. The centerpiece of transactional leadership management is engaging in explicit exchanges that both leader and follower believe to be fair.

Reward leadershipReward leadership is an especially important aspect of transactional leadership, which is really another term for the practice of management. As just noted, good management involves rewarding followers fairly for their accomplishments. But reward leadership is important enough to examine as a separate aspect of transactional leadership because, when done properly that is to say, fairly, so that both managers and employees feel that the exchange of employee's efforts for promised rewards is fair-it becomes the basis for trust. And trust is fundamental to transformational leadership.

Transformational leadershipTransformational leadership is quite different from an exchange, no matter how complex the exchange process might be. Transformational leaders build on a history of fair exchange. Without a basis of fairness, the aim of transformational leaders, creating exceptionally high-performing organizations in which people thrive, cannot be achieved.

However, transformational leadership goes beyond fairness. Transformational leaders construct organizational cultures. Organizational cultures consist of values and beliefs that are widely shared among members of an organization. These values and beliefs are rarely explicit, but they can serve to guide organization members' actions so that their efforts pay off in exceptional performance results.

This means that leaders, including transactional leaders or managers, don't need to supervise or direct followers especially closely because the directions are, in a sense, "built-in" by the values and beliefs that guide behavior. One important consequence is that followers feel empowered, that is, more self-controlled. One common result of transformational leaders' empowerment of followers is that the followers' performance goes far beyond what simple transactional bargains might require. There are, however, real and valuable rewards that followers get in such situations. That is, followers get three "rewards" that can't be quantified or negotiated:

  • First, followers develop a sense of self-control, of internal self-direction. This "reward" is a kind of inner power orientation that enables two additional "rewards."
  • The second "reward" is that instead of relying on the leader's orders or directions followers develop the self-confidence needed to take actions on their own. These actions are taken on the basis of cultural values and beliefs that are shared among leaders, followers, and others in the organization.
  • Third, followers also come to see the long-term effects of their actions, not just the immediate performance results. This is the "reward" of vision, that is, developing one's understanding of causes and effects over long time spans. In these ways, followers develop the character required for leadership may become self-directed leaders themselves.
Personal Entrepreneurial Orientation The Personal Entrepreneurial Orientation score is a measure of the degree to which one's focus is on entrepreneurial success. It combines three elements that extensive research has shown are crucial for the success of entrepreneurial ventures: an emphasis on innovation, aggressive competition in the marketplace, and a willingness to take risks.

Entrepreneurs who have a focus on innovation are not necessarily inventors. They are often "champions" of new ideas, new products, or new services.

An orientation toward getting into the marketplace is probably more important than raw aggression. Successful entrepreneurs know that they must get the attention of customers, and they typically do this by building positive customer relationships, focusing on what the customer wants and needs rather than on "selling" what the entrepreneur has.

Entrepreneurs do not see themselves as taking big risks, even though an observer might judge their actions to be "risky." This is because they are able to see what actions they must take, step-by-step, to achieve the outcome they desire. These actions are often complicated and are taken over a period of months and years. To the entrepreneur this is not risky in the way it might seem to an observer, because the entrepreneur knows what to do, when, and has made sure that he or she is capable of doing it. This means having the necessary knowledge, skills, and resources. When these factors come together, one can see that what might have seemed to be a risky course of action was, to the entrepreneur, simply a matter of carrying out a plan.